Heat exchanger

A heat exchanger is a piece of equipment built for efficient heat transfer from one medium to another. The media may be separated by a solid wall, so that they never mix, or they may be in direct contact. They are widely used in space heating, refrigeration, air conditioning, power plants, chemical plants, petrochemical plants, … Read more


A coffee cup is a container that coffee and espresso-based drinks are served in. Coffee cups are made of porcelain, ceramic, or tempered glass and they can have a handle for portability. Ceramic and porcelain provide insulation, maintaining the beverage hot. Tempered glassware needs a double wall construction in order to provide insulation. A coffee cup may also be a disposable cup in which hot … Read more

Temperature control

Temperature control is a process in which change of temperature of a space (and objects collectively there within) is measured or otherwise detected, and the passage of heat energy into or out of the space is adjusted to achieve a desired average temperature. In the coffee making industry, the temperature control is particularly important because … Read more


Pressure is the ratio of force to the area over which that force is distributed. Pressure is force per unit area applied in a direction perpendicular to the surface of an object. Gauge pressure (also spelled gage pressure) is the pressure relative to the local atmospheric or ambient pressure. While pressure may be measured in … Read more


Flavor or flavour is the sensory impression of a foods, drinks, or other substances, and is determined mainly by the chemical senses of taste and smell. The “trigeminal senses”, which detect chemical irritants in the mouth and throat as well as temperature and texture, are also very important to the overall Gestalt of flavor perception. … Read more

PID controller

In coffee maker industry the PID improves the brewing precision, by allowing the brewing temperature to be maintained between certain parameters. The PID of an espresso machine controls various heating elements of the unit. The PID controlled element can heat the brewing boiler, the milk steaming boiler, or with some high-end machines, the brew head. … Read more

Iced coffee

Iced coffee is a cold variant of coffee. In more recent times it has become common for coffee shops to offer ‘iced’ versions of their most popular coffee drinks. The iced latte and iced mocha are the two most common examples of this. A quick way of preparing such drinks is to make a small … Read more

Single-origin coffee

Single-origin coffee is coffee grown within a single known geographical origin. Sometimes this is a single farm or a specific collection of beans from a single country. The name of the coffee is then usually the place it was grown to whatever degree available. Single-origins are viewed by some as a way to get a … Read more

coffee grinder

A coffee grinder is a device for crushing coffee beans into fine grains or a powder. There are several types of coffee grinders, the most popular ones are burr grinders and blade grinders. In theory, any kitchen device designed to break solid foods into smaller pieces can be used for coffee grinding. In practice, grind … Read more

super automatic

Espresso shotA super-automatic espresso machine performs all or almost all of the espresso brewing automatically. A super automatic espresso machine will automate the following operations that are typically performed manually by the barista:

  • Coffee beans dosing
  • Coffee beans grinding
  • Coffee tamping
  • Espresso shot extraction, (water temperature, extraction time, pressure)
  • Milk steaming and frothing

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semi automatic espresso machines

Breville 800ESXL with interesting lightingSemi-automatic espresso machines are devices that partially automate the espresso brewing process. Compared with super automatic machines, they require more work and know-how from the barista. They are the choice of coffee shops and espresso aficionados. They offer excellent reliability and control over the brewing process.
The most basic semi-automatic espresso machine includes a boiler, a portafilter, and a switch to perform the extraction. The barista needs to grind and tamp the coffee and control the extraction time.

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Pulling espresso shot with naked portafilterEspresso crema is a brown, foamy layer on top of the brewed coffee. Crema is a mix of gas bubbles, and emulsified fats, which are the signature of a good espresso. The perfect crema is a reddish-brown foam, with tiny bubbles. If the bubbles are too big, the shot was incorrectly extracted. If the colour is too light is an under-extracted shot, and if it’s too dark, the shot is over-extracted.

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brew group

The brew group is the entire assembly that circulates the water to the coffee puck during the extraction. The brewing group includes only the components after the boiler. A brew group contains as a minimum the group head, and the portafilter, but sometimes has more components depending on the design, or the level of automation. Some brew … Read more


Espresso shotRistretto is a short shot of espresso coffee made with the normal amount of ground coffee but extracted with about half the amount of water. Traditionally, a ristretto is extracted using the same amount of coffee grounds and water as a normale, but reducing the time to brew it. The result is a concentrated espresso with a different flavor and taste profile, and slightly lower caffeine content.

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