High-density lipoprotein

Last Updated on September 8th, 2018High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is one of the five major groups of lipoproteins, which, in order of sizes, largest to smallest, are chylomicrons, VLDL, IDL, LDL, and HDL, which enable lipids like cholesterol and triglycerides to be transported within the water-based bloodstream. In healthy individuals, about thirty percent of blood cholesterol … Read more

Brain damage

Last Updated on February 24th, 2018“Brain damage” or “Brain Injury” (BI) is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells. Brain injuries occur due to a wide range of internal and external factors. A common category with the greatest number of injuries is traumatic brain injury (TBI) following physical trauma or head injury from an outside … Read more

Ageing

Last Updated on February 24th, 2018Ageing (British English) or aging (American English) is the accumulation of changes in a person over time. Ageing in humans refers to a multidimensional process of physical, psychological, and social change. Some dimensions of ageing grow and expand over time, while others decline. Reaction time, for example, may slow with … Read more

Cholesterol

Last Updated on February 24th, 2018Cholesterol, from the Greek chole- and stereos (solid) followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol, is an organic molecule. It is a sterol, It is an essential structural component of animal cell membranes that is required to establish proper membrane permeability and fluidity. In addition to its importance … Read more

Cafestol

Last Updated on August 13th, 2018Cafestol is a diterpene molecule present in coffee. A typical bean of Coffea arabica contains about 0.6% cafestol by weight. Cafestol is present in highest quantity in unfiltered coffee drinks such as French press coffee or Turkish coffee/Greek coffee. In filtered coffee drinks such as drip brewed coffee, it is … Read more

Kahweol

Last Updated on September 4th, 2018Kahweol is a diterpene molecule found in the beans of Coffea arabica. It is structurally related to cafestol. Recent research suggests that kahweol may have beneficial effects on bone by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation. Another recent study confirmed that kahweol has anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic effects, offering a possible mechanism for the … Read more

Heart

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The heart is a hollow muscle that pumps blood throughout the blood vessels by repeated, rhythmic contractions. It is found in all animals with a circulatory system. The term cardiac means “related to the heart” and comes from the Greek καρδιά, kardia, for “heart”.

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Osteoporosis

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Osteoporosis is a disease of bones that leads to an increased risk of fracture. In osteoporosis, the bone mineral density (BMD) is reduced, bone microarchitecture deteriorates, and the amount and variety of proteins in bone are altered.

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Dementia

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Dementia (taken from Latin, originally meaning “madness”, from de- “without” + ment, the root of mens “mind”) is a serious loss of global cognitive ability in a previously unimpaired person, beyond what might be expected from normal ageing.

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Myocardial infarction

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Myocardial infarction (MI) or acute myocardial infarction (AMI), commonly known as a heart attack, results from the partial interruption of blood supply to a part of the heart, causing heart cells to die.

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Cancer

Last Updated on February 24th, 2018Cancer, known medically as a malignant neoplasm, is a broad group of various diseases, all involving unregulated cell growth. In cancer, cells divide and grow uncontrollably, forming malignant tumors, and invade nearby parts of the body. The cancer may also spread to more distant parts of the body through the … Read more

Hypertension

Last Updated on February 24th, 2018Hypertension (HTN) or high blood pressure, sometimes called arterial hypertension, is a chronic medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is elevated. This requires the heart to work harder than normal to circulate blood through the blood vessels. Blood pressure is summarised by two measurements, systolic and … Read more

Alzheimer’s disease

Last Updated on February 24th, 2018Alzheimer’s disease (AD), also known in medical literature as Alzheimer disease, is the most common form of dementia. There is no cure for the disease, which worsens as it progresses, and eventually leads to death. It was first described by German psychiatrist and neuropathologist Alois Alzheimer in 1906 and was … Read more

Diabetes mellitus

Last Updated on February 24th, 2018Diabetes mellitus, or simply diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced. This high blood sugar produces the classical symptoms of polyuria … Read more

Stomach

Last Updated on September 4th, 2018The stomach is a muscular, hollow, dilated part of the digestion system which functions as an important organ of the digestive tract in some animals, including vertebrates, echinoderms, insects (mid-gut), and molluscs. It is involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication (chewing). The stomach is located between the … Read more

Low-density lipoprotein

Last Updated on September 8th, 2018Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is one of the five major groups of lipoproteins, which in order of size, largest to smallest, are chylomicrons, VLDL, IDL, LDL, and HDL, that enable transport of multiple different fat molecules, including cholesterol, within the water around cells and within the water-based bloodstream. Studies have shown … Read more

Caffeine

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Caffeine is a bitter, white crystalline xanthine alkaloid that acts as a stimulant drug. Caffeine is found in varying quantities in the seeds, leaves, and fruit of some plants, where it acts as a natural pesticide that paralyzes and kills certain insects feeding on the plants, as well as enhancing the reward memory of pollinators.

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